宋国强英语教学网

 找回密码
 立即注册
搜索
热搜: 活动 交友 discuz

过去完成时和过去完成进行时

2017-11-28 15:01| 发布者: admin| 查看: 553| 评论: 0

摘要: 过去完成进行式(Past Perfect Progressive Tense)过去完成式的形式如下:had + past participle过去完成式是不能单独用的。我们用的时候,必须有另一个事件。也就是说,假如我们有两件事 A 和 B,两件事都发生在过 ...
过去完成进行式(Past Perfect Progressive Tense) 
过去完成式的形式如下: 
had + past participle 
过去完成式是不能单独用的。我们用的时候,必须有另一个事件。也就是说,假如我们有两件事 A 和 B,两件事都发生在过去,但 A 发生在 B 以前,A 应该用过去完成式,B 则用过去式。以下是几个例子: 
(1)  他到台湾以前,曾学过中文。
He had studied Chinese before he came to Taiwan. 
(2)  他念大学以前,曾前工作过。
He had worked before he decided to go to college. 
(3)  我写这篇有关爱尔兰的小说以前,曾去过爱尔兰。
I had been to Ireland before I wrote this book about Ireland's people. 
(4)  我在上大学以前,已经学过微积分。
I had studied calculus before I got into college. 
(5)  周一以前,已经下过雪了。
It had already snowed before Monday. 
如果我们要强调较早发生事件的连续性,我们可以用过去完成进行式。占去完成进行式和现在进行式惟一不同的地方是 verb to have 的地方一定要用had 。以下是一些过去完成进行式的例子: 
1.  I had been watching TV before you called me. 
2.  I had been working hard in a company for many years before I went to college. 
3.  He had been studying before he went to class. 
4.  He had been driving all day before he went to sleep. 

过去完成时

1) 概念:表示过去的过去 
----|-------|-----|---->其构成是had +过去分词构成。 
那时以前 那时 现在 
2) 用法 
a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。 
She said (that) she had never been to Paris. 
b. 状语从句 
在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 
When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 
c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…" 
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 
3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 
He said that he had learned some English before. 
By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 
Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

过去完成进行时
形式:
I (or You,He,John,They,Those men) had been studying.
770  过去完成进行时与过去完成时的用法很相近,它通常表示一个持续到过去某时的动作:
He had been waiting for two weeks. He was still waiting.(有一个表示一段时间的状语)
Up to that time he had been translating those books.(He was still translating at “that time”.)
He had been writing the letter till two o'clock.
He was now thirty years old.He had been gambling since he was ten.(He was still gambling at thirty.)
He had been standing there in the sun.(没有时间状语)
He had been thinking about his marriage.
不过这个时态并不一定表示这个过去动作将持续下去:
He came back at seven.He had been waiting for her two hours.(At seven he did not wait any more.)
He stopped swimming.He had been swimming for the last three hours.
另一方面,这个时态也和现在完成进行时一样,也可有一些特别的含义:
1)尚未完成:
He had been writing the novel.(He had not finished it yet.)

2)企图:
He had been studying the meaning of this proverb.(He was trying to study it.)
3)未得结果:
We had been studying what our enemy had said.(But we were not able to understand it.)
4)最近情况:
He had been quarrelling with his wife.(lately)
5)反复动作:
He had been asking me the same question.(Many times)
6)情绪:
What had he been doing?(不耐烦)
这个时态很少用在否定句中,而多以过去完成时代替:
He had not practised English for many years.(普通说法)
He had not been practising English for many years.(少见)
这个时态还可用在said,supposed等引起的间接引语中,代替现在完成进行时:
He said,“I have been speaking to John.”= He said that he had been speaking to John.
He thought,“She was watching me when I passed.”= He thought that she had been watching him when he had passed.


鲜花

握手

雷人

路过

鸡蛋

QQ|Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|宋国强英语教学网  

GMT+8, 2018-11-20 06:21 , Processed in 0.090749 second(s), 19 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.3

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

返回顶部